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Center for the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. City-port on the coast of Anadyr Bay of the Bering Sea. The population of 11,2 thousand people. (2006).

Anadyr from the word «Onandyr» - Chukotka river, «Anadyr» - jail time Dezhneva Seeds and Kurbatov Ivanova (mid-XVII century). The local populationof Chukotka calls the city Ven «pharynx, login» or Kagyrlyn «login mouth», which reflects its location at the narrow neck, opening the entrance to the upper part of the Anadyr estuary.

The city of Anadyr was established as the north-eastern outpost of Russian Empire - New Mariinsk in August 1889.
Reason dictated by its geopolitical interests of the Russian state, due to worsening in the second half of XIX century, the contradictions between Russia, the USA and England in the North Pacific Ocean. Exacerbated an enhancement of American expansion first in the territorial waters and then, after selling the king's government in 1867 in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands United States of America, and the north-east coast of the Russian Empire. Restrict the entry of the Americans in Chukotka kreysirovaniya using military ships from its shores not. And then the royal decree of the Government of July 9, 1888, to consolidate the nation on a remote north-eastern outskirts of the Russian Empire, established a new independent administrative unit - Anadyr county, providing for this part of the territory of the county Gizhiginskogo. Among the priority objectives of the first chief of the newly created districts Anadyr Leonid Grinevetsky was the base of the center.

First time post, and then the village was known by two names: Novo-Mariinsky and Anadyr, and drag their miserable existence. Despite this, here, on the outskirts of Russia, increasingly overlap routes scientists of different fields. We know that a passion for research entertained the first chief of Anadyr region LF Grinevetsky, as well as appointed three years after his death, NL Gondatti. Along with a rich academic heritage, on the Chukotka, truthful description of Novo-Mariinsky has left the largest academic ethnographer, exile Narodovolets VG Tan Bogoraz, in Soviet times, became a professor, a member of the Committee for the Peoples of the North.
Advantageous geographical location Novo-Mariinsky gradually attracted the attention of Russian and foreign traders, gold miners, rybopromyshlennikov. Since opening in 1906, American Prospector We must, French Canadian origin, a few dozen kilometers from the county center in the river basin wolf, small россыпи gold, for its development was established share mine Discovery. T. Birich, the son of a major Kamchatka P. Biricha businessman, opened in New Mariinsk office of "Churkin and K" from Vladivostok. On the banks of estuary were two large fishing - Eriksson and Grushetsky. The latter was the owner of Pacific fisheries, who had their own ships. Began to settle here and indigenous people.
In 1914, in Novo-Mariinsky was built one of the most powerful radio station in Russia, which had been established long-wave spark transmitter to ensure reliable communications with Petropavlovsk, Okhotsk, Nomom.

Before the 1917 revolution on the left bank of the river were Kazatchkov stores, prisons, a few houses. Construction in the Novo-Mariinsky was on the right bank. There were about 30-40 houses, new home county chief, storage, sauna, medical item Yaranga Chapel. Above, on the shore of estuary were mail and radio.

Not bypassed New Mariinsk revolutionary events of 1917. In 1919th there was a first Revkom Chukotka. In 1920, after kontrrevolyutsinnogo coup and execution revkomovtsev, was elected County Board Anadyr, reorganized in 1921 in narrevkom. In the same year in Anadyr was a union of employees - the first trade union in Chukotka.

4 Oct., 1923 Novo Mariinsk was renamed in Anadyr.

Rapid growth began after the Anadyr Chukotka National District pursuant to Resolution of the Presidium of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee "On the organization of national associations in the resettlement areas Peoples of the North" dated 10 December 1930.
Center Anadyr Chukotka National District began in 1932.
In 1934, an Order ARCEC Kremlin Anadyr village was renamed to the city, but the official status of the city, he received many years after World War II - in 1965. In 1935 he was station permafrost Anadyr, USSR Academy of Sciences.

On January 1, 1941 in Anadyr population of 3100 people. Many anadyrtsy took part in the construction of a military airfield for military transport aircraft from Vancouver to the fronts of World War II, collected funds for the construction of military equipment were sent a parcel with warm clothes soldiers.
In 1943, in Anadyr, the first issue of Young Teachers of Chukotka. Among them were 3 Chukchi, Eskimos 4, 1 chuvanets. January 3, 1947 in the town of Anadyr district library opened. Village Library of place here since 1924, while documenting this fact is not recorded anywhere.
In 1949, work began Anadyr rayprombytkombinat. 1 May, 1953 The first issue of the newspaper «Sovetken Chukot». In 1954, by order of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR established construction management - SMU-1, later renamed the KJC -4. In 1955, in the Anadyr Bay on the shores of the shallow port sites organized. He has two boats, three kungasami, a car. In 1958, work started in Anadyr District House of Folk Art and Music School. In 1961, school-based staff in a collective-farm Anadyr open agricultural college.
In 1961 - founded the seaport of Anadyr. In 1963, in Anadyr put into operation Cultural Center, construction of which the active involvement of the public, young people. 1963 - completed the construction of a dam on the river Kazatchkov, which take place in Anadyr plumbing. The length of the dam at 1300 meters, height-16 meters. In 1964, a VGCHPU.

In 1964 came into operation the first PBX Anadyr.
January 12, 1965 Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR Center Chukotka National District - Anadyr village - transformed into a city of regional submission.
This year, in Anadyr born 97 children. A total of Anadyr lived more than 5 thousand people.
October 31, 1967 Anadyr conducted the first TV broadcast. In 1967, in Anadyr built the first four residential building (, 36). In 1967 he opened a monument to VI Lenin. 7 August, 1968 established professional Chukchi-eskimosky National Ensemble "Ergyron.
Since 1973, began production brewery.
In 1978, construction began on a new dairy and meat factory.
In 1980, became the administrative center of Anadyr Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (under the Act for the Autonomous Districts of Russia "Chukotka National District was transformed into an autonomous).
In 1994, the capital of the district began work Chukotsky District College of Art.

After the decline in socio-economic development, characterized by a decline in living standards and the mass exodus of able-bodied population of the northern regions, which began with the collapse of the Soviet Union and will continue until the end of XX century, with a 2001-year period started in Anadyr "second" birthday, intensive updates and development.
On 11 August 2004, in Anadyr opened the world's largest monument to Nicholas the Miracle Worker.

Anadyr on the map.

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